Vegetable farmer in Awach

Northern Uganda went through 20 years of violent military conflict, this caused wide spread displacement of people and many lost their life and property. As a result of the conflict, there was a complete social economic breakdown in this part of the country. However, a lot has since improved people have started farming.
Mr. Okwera Alfred, “while we were in internal displacement camps, life had a lot of challenges, we had no place to cultivate, no food and movement was also restricted. When we returned home, I concentrated in growing vegetables; this kept me surviving but us many challenges, lack of seeds, farm tools, pesticide etc. I visited the center at Awach and I learnt many things in relation to my farming, how to space, how to prepare land for cabbages and onions, pest control and when to plant. Am now looking for market for my cabbage and onions, if I want information, I will just go to the knowledge Centre. I encourage people out there to come and get all sorts of information at the Knowledge Centre”.

Okwera Alfred in his garden


 ICT at Awach

Mr. Okello Ronald Kasujja age 24 yrs old, “I am a Youth from Awach, also the Deputy Speaker for Awach sub-county. I must say the knowledge center has been of great source of information to the youth in this area, most youth did not even know what a computer was, let alone internet, now they all come for free lessons and can surf the net. Setting up this center here has changed their life; they have learnt many new things and have continued to learn”.
When I got to know about this centre and the free services offered, I enrolled for computer lessons, now I can use a computer and I am able to use packages like excel and power point with minimum support. I was even taught how to surf the internet, I can send email, search for news, and any other information that I might need to know. I would like to thank ALIN for their free services like Free computer access, Free ICT training, Library service. Thanks to Sam and Bernard for all their effort in as far as managing and running this Knowledge Centre is concern.
Youth at Awach knowledge center

The Effects of Climate Change to farmers(Drought)...
Climate is of the major factors that affect our farmer and these effects are both Positive and Negative. When we talk of climate we mean the average weather condition recorded over a long period of time. Hence these have got a number of effects to farmers.
The causes of climate change can be divided into two categories, human and natural causes.
It is now a global concern that the climatic changes occurring today have been speeded up because of man's activities.
The natural variability and the climate fluctuations of the climate system have always been part of the Earth’s history however there have been changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere growing at an unprecedented rate and magnitude. The United Nations, governments and many top scientists around the world believe that we must act now to stabilise and arrest further changes.

To understand climate change fully, the causes of climate change must be first identified. Scientists divide the causes into two categories, natural and human causes.

The earth’s climate is influenced and changed through natural causes like volcanic eruptions, ocean current, the earth’s orbital changes and solar variations.

Volcanic eruptions - When a volcano erupts it throws out large volumes of sulphur dioxide (SO2), water vapour, dust, and ash into the atmosphere. Large volumes of gases and ash can influence climatic patterns for years by increasing planetary reflectivity causing atmospheric cooling. Tiny particles called aerosols are produced by volcanoes. Because they reflect solar energy back into space they have a cooling effect on the world. The greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide is also produced however the CO2 produced is insignificant when compared to emissions created by humans.
(see also featured article - Do Volcanoes cause climate change)

Ocean current - The oceans are a major component of the climate system. Ocean currents move vast amounts of heat across the planet. Winds push horizontally against the sea surface and drive ocean current patterns. Interactions between the ocean and atmosphere can also produce phenomena such as El Niño which occur every 2 to 6 years. Deep ocean circulation of cold water from the poles towards the equator and movement of warm water from the equator back towards the poles. Without this movement the poles would be colder and the equator warmer. The oceans play an important role in determining the atmospheric concentration of CO2. Changes in ocean circulation may affect the climate through the movement of CO2 into or out of the atmosphere.

Earth orbital changes - The earth makes one full orbit around the sun each year. It is tilted at an angle of 23.5° to the perpendicular plane of its orbital path. Changes in the tilt of the earth can lead to small but climatically important changes in the strength of the seasons, more tilt means warmer summers and colder winters; less tilt means cooler summers and milder winters. Slow changes in the Earth’s orbit lead to small but climatically important changes in the strength of the seasons over tens of thousands of years. Climate feedbacks amplify these small changes, thereby producing ice ages.

Solar variations - The Sun is the source of energy for the Earth’s climate system. Although the Sun’s energy output appears constant from an everyday point of view, small changes over an extended period of time can lead to climate changes. Some scientists suspect that a portion of the warming in the first half of the 20th century was due to an increase in the output of solar energy. As the sun is the fundamental source of energy that is instrumental in our climate system it would be reasonable to assume that changes in the sun's energy output would cause the climate to change. Scientific studies demonstrate that solar variations have performed a role in past climate changes. For instance a decrease in solar activity was thought to have triggered the Little Ice Age between approximately 1650 and 1850, when Greenland was largely cut off by ice from 1410 to the 1720s and glaciers advanced in the Alps.
Current global warming however cannot be explained by solar variations. Some examples are evidenced such as since 1750, the average amount of energy coming from the Sun either remained constant or increased slightly.
If global warming was caused by a more active sun, then scientists would expect to see warmer temperatures in all layers of the atmosphere. They have only observed a cooling in the upper atmosphere, a warming at the surface and in the lower parts of the atmosphere. This is due to greenhouse gasses capturing heat in the lower atmosphere. Also climate models that include solar irradiance changes cannot reproduce last century's observed temperature trend without including a rise in greenhouse gases

Human Causes of Climate Change
"It has been demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt that the climate is changing due to man-made greenhouse gases. We are already committed to future substantial change over the next 30 years and change is likely to accelerate over the rest of the 21st century."

Agriculture is extremely vulnerable to climate change. Higher temperatures eventually reduce yields of desirable crops while encouraging weed and pest proliferation. Changes in precipitation patterns increase the likelihood of short-run crop failures and long-run production declines. Although there will be gains in some crops in some regions of the world, the overall impacts of climate change on agriculture are expected to be negative, threatening global food security.
Due to climate change, farmer are highly affected by these in such a way that they are face with drought which at the end affect both crop and animals production hence low productivities. Climate change will result in additional price increases for the most important agricultural crops–rice, wheat, maize, and soybeans. Higher feed prices will result in higher meat prices. As a result, climate change will reduce the growth in meat consumption slightly and cause a more substantial fall in cereals consumption

As a result of climate change which affect the production, these leads to high cost of living which comes as a result of low productivity. These include high cost of Education, health, Shelter etc..
Climate change will result in additional price increases for the most important agricultural crops–rice, wheat, maize, and soybeans. Higher feed prices will result in higher meat prices. As a result, climate change will reduce the growth in meat consumption slightly and cause a more substantial fall in cereals consumption
We can not run away from famine as a result of climate change this is because of the low productivity which come as a result of climate change.
Poverty will come due to the climatic change which is as a result of low productivity.
To fight the above mention problems, there is high needs for sensitization of farmer on the best farming method in relation to climate change.
Use of irrigation as a mean of farming which will help to reduce on the effect of climate change hence improve production.
Introduction of crop that can easily adapt to climatic change. Eg……………..
Government intervention to helps in conserving environment to help in reducing effect of climate planting more trees.

Complied by:
Oola Bernard

F O Awach M C-Gulu    

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